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Wednesday, January 24, 2024

The Chemistry behind CRT ( Carbon Recycling Technology)

Electricity is generated using a gas turbine by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy and it can be explained by the following chemical reaction. 1.CH4 + 2O2 => CO2 + 2 H2O _ 890 KJ / mol (exothermic reaction) generating heat of combustion with the evolution of CO2 (Carbon dioxide) and H2O (water vapour) both greenhouse gases along with oxides of Nitrogen. The above fuel methane ( CH4) is the major constituent in natural gas and O2 is supplied in the form of compressed air (O2 +N2). The above heat of combustion is the source of thermal energy. 2. IN CRT (carbon recycling technology), the above process of combustion is reversed as described by the following equation: CO2 + 2 H2O => CH4 + 2 O2 +1038 KJ/mol endothermic reaction, regenerating CH4 (methane gas) and pure O2 (Oxygen). The energy required for the second reaction is more than the first reaction, which can only be supplied by an external source. In CRT this energy comes from renewable energy sources. CO2 emitted by reaction 1 is captured and stored under pressure. The water vapour (H2O) is split into H2 (Hydrogen) and O2 (Oxygen) using an electrolyser using renewable energy such as PV solar and wind. Both Hydrogen (H2) as well as Oxygen (O2) are stored under pressure separately. Oxygen is a valuable by-product. In CRT we use desalinated seawater as the main source of water for electrolysis as well as for CO2 capture and recovery. Since we use Hydrogen (H2) as a reducing agent to convert CO2 into methane (CH4) the following reaction is applicable. CO2 + 4 H2=> CH4 + 2 H2O (endothermic reaction). It regenerates both CH4 as well as H2O used above thus completing the cycle as a circular economy. The entire process of CRT uses Renewable energy in the form of renewable Hydrogen (RH). It uses only sun, wind, and seawater all natural resources available in abundance. The economics and profitability : The major investment will be in renewable energy sources such as PV solar, Wind, Hydro, Geothermal etc. Therefore, CRT can be easily integrated with existing solar farms and Hydrogen hubs. Since CRT uses desalinated water as the main source of water the plant will be located invariably on the seashore. 1. Oxygen (Hospital grade) is a valuable by-product as a major source of revenue catering to a wide range of markets and exports in the form of liquid Oxygen as well as compressed Oxygen. 2. Since CRT uses LNG only as a start-up fuel as a source of Carbon, there will be no external fossil fuel requirement for the entire life cycle of the plant for 30 years. The fuel savings will be of enormous value. 3. CRT convert CO2 emissions from the gas turbine internally into RSMG (renewable synthetic methane gas) there will be zero emissions of GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) thus eligible for Carbon credit. It is also a major source of revenue. 4. CRT is a baseload power generation plant selling power 24 x7 generating large sales revenue. All the above four sources of income make CRT the most attractive technology with high rates of return on investment and a short payback period, often less than 2-3 years even for a few billion dollars of investment. Only renewable energy projects such as solar and wind irrespective of their sizes (maybe several GW capacities) will not be able to meet the growing electricity demand in the future. It requires storage batteries thus increasing the investment substantially. Only Hydrogen generating projects irrespective of their sizes will not be able to meet the growing electricity demand in the future. Moreover, such large-scale projects require massive investment upfront with a long repayment period making it unattractive for private investments. CRT will be the only technology that can comprehensively and holistically address all the above issues in the future.

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