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Thursday, January 18, 2024


( A zero emission and zero fuel baseload power technology)" "The entire plant will run on Solar and Wind only." "Pitch for CRT (Carbon Recycling Technology) Headlining the Pitch: • CRT is a revolutionary closed-loop system that captures carbon, converts it into fuel, and uses that fuel to continuously power itself, all while generating no emissions fulfilling all the requirements of a “circular economy”. • CRT addresses two major challenges facing baseload power plants: fossil fuel dependence and carbon emissions. CRT eliminates both these concerns simultaneously. Key selling points: • Fossil fuel freedom: CRT offers complete freedom from fossil fuel after start- up, offering enormous cost savings and environmental benefits. CRT is a ""self-sustaining"" and ""perpetual fuel generation"" technology with Zero emissions advantage: With zero emission emissions, including compliance" "with regulations, and eligibility for carbon credits, CRT is setting a standard for ESG compliance in power industries. • CRT offers enormous cost savings from eliminated fuel purchases and potential carbon credit revenue. Countries like India which are fully dependent on imported fossil fuels can save substantial foreign exchange outflow. CRT can be scaled up to large capacities and set up in various locations of the country enabling emission targets to be met as a signatory of the Kyoto protocol. India can lead the world on zero emission power technology using advanced gas turbine technologies as the world is preparing for Electrical vehicles and Hydrogen (Fuel cell) vehicles, • Technology leadership: CRT offers the unique advantages of using alkaline water scrubbing of CO2 and membrane contactor degasification/stripping compared to other technologies. The capacity of the baseload combined cycle power plant: 370 Mw Electrical efficiency: 56 % Fuel consumption: 2254 mmBtu/hr Cost of natural gas: $11/mmBtu Power tariff: $ 0.15/kWh Annual fuel cost : $ 24,974/hr x 8760 hrs/yr = $ 217.20 mil Plant cost: $ 15.00 billion. Total project cost: $ 16 billion. First-year operation: 1. Power sales revenue: $ 486 mil/yr. 2. Oxygen sales: $ 8-10 billion/yr. 3. Carbon credit: $130 mil/yr 4. Fuel savings: $ 217.20 mil/yr." "Total revenue : $ 8-9 billion/yr "The life of the plnts 25 years. Since there will be no fuel usage after start-up (only initially natural gas is used as the fuel). For subsequent runs, the plant generates its fuel and power itself with zero emissions. The cost of production for power will be $447/yr. assuming SNG price @$11/mmBtu for 25 years for the life of the plant. The sales revenue will be $ 8 billion/yr. Gross profit/yr. will be:$ 7 billion ROI will be: Less than 2-3 years depending upon Oxygen price. The rate of return will be nearly about 80-85 % The power tariff is fixed at $ 0.15/kwh for the life of the plant of 25 years. With the incremental increase in tariff @ 5% the sales revenue and profitability will sharply increase!
CARBON RECYCLING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY Carbon Recycling Technology (CRT) is a process technology that uses the thermodynamic law of conservation of mass, which states that ‘ matter is neither created nor destroyed’. The Carbon atom in a fossil fuel such as coal, oil and gas remains constant irrespective of various transformations it undergoes such as combustion, reformation, gasification etc. In CRT the Carbon atom on combustion with oxidant such as air or pure Oxygen generates thermal energy emitting CO2 gas. The CO2 can be converted into CH4 (SNG) by methanation. Using renewable Hydrogen. Renewable Hydrogen can be derived from desalinated seawater by electrolysis using renewable energy sources such as solar and wind etc. However, the Carbon atom remains the same in the form of CH4 (SNG). The SNG can be subject to combustion in a gas turbine to generate power emitting CO2 once again. The CO2 can be captured and used as described above thereby continuing the cycle of power generation with zero emission into the atmosphere. The above process technology is known as Carbon capture and reuse (CCU). In our CRT process, the CO2 emission is absorbed in an alkalised seawater using a contact membrane generating Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solution. The resulting Na2CO3 solution is further acidified with sulfuric acid using the contact membrane similar to the above and degasified to recover CO2 in the gaseous form, which is compressed and stored for further use. The stored CO2 under pressure is further methanated using renewable Hydrogen as described above in an adiabatic reactor using proprietary catalysts. It is a highly exothermic reaction releasing large amounts of heat, which is removed using the appropriate mechanism to complete the reaction. The waste heat is used to generate superheated steam by evaporating the water which is a by-product of the methanation reaction which can be used for further use. The resulting SNG is dehydrated and stored under pressure which has a higher heating value (HHV) of 53 MJ/kg for further combustion in the above gas turbine. The CO2 emitted from the gas turbine is captured as described above completing the cycle. The above-described process is known as CRT. In normal power generation using gas turbines a readily available fossil fuel is used to generate power emitting CO2 into the atmosphere. In CRT the fuel SNG is generated internally using CO2 emission from a gas turbine. It is a power generation technology with a ZERO CO2 EMISSION AND ZERO EXTERNAL FOSSIL FUEL REQUIREMENT. By replicating CRT in various parts of the world, the CO2 along with H2O emissions can be eliminated while no fresh fossil fuel will be burnt, fulfilling the world’s abatement requirements. The initial investment for CRT will be much higher than a normal power plant with emissions but when considering the Carbon credit available and no fossil fuel will be further required and burnt the initial capital can be easily recovered in a shorter period justifying the high initial cost." "For example, a simple gas turbine with a power generation capacity of 1.20 MW emits about 960 kgs/hr of CO2 constituting less than 7% of the emission by volume at 510C. The waste heat is utilized to generate steam for internal use in the CRT process. What are the process steps involved? 1. It involves the generation of Syngas with an H2:CO ratio at 3:1 using a steam methane reformer. IT will use regasified LNG to start with. It is a well- established technology. 2. Hydrogen generation using desalinated sea water using PEM electrolysis. The process will generate sufficient Hydrogen with Oxygen as a by-product. Oxygen can be a valuable product for hospitals and industrial applications. It is a well-established technology. 3. Seawater desalination using the SWRO process with an alkalised feed for further recovery of CO2 from gas turbine exhaust to generate electricity. The waste heat will be utilized for steam generation using desalinated seawater (DM water). It is a well-established technology. 4. The CO2 emitted from gas turbines is absorbed using the above SWRO permeate which is alkaline in nature forming a solution of Sodium carbonate which will be further acidified using commercial-grade H2SO4 to release CO2 from a Sodium carbonate solution and degasified using a contact membrane. The recovered CO2 is compressed and stored for further use. 5. The above Syngas along with Hydrogen and captured CO2 will be methanated in multiple tubular reactors using proprietary catalysts adiabatically, generating renewable synthetic methane gas (RSMG) along with superheated steam as a by-product. It is a commercially established technology. The methane gas pipeline is rated with LHV at 50 MJ/kg and free from sulphur compounds. 6. The renewable synthetic methane gas (RSMG) thus generated will be recycled to the gas turbine for further power generation eliminating fresh LNG requirements. 7. Since CO2 emission is captured and converted into RSMG and recycled internally there will be zero emissions. The above-described CRT process will be a ‘Zero emission baseload power plant and zero fossil fuel usage’."

Wednesday, April 5, 2023

How desalination plants contribute to global warming and solutions to address them?

How desalination plants contribute to global warming and solutions to address them? I posted the following article in my blog in 2014. We are now addressing this problem by setting one the largest integrated membrane-based sea water desalination plants in India using renewable power without using oil and gas. Highly contaminated and concentrated effluent discharge from existing and operating desalination plants around the world have greatly contributed to global warming according to world’s leading research institutions in marine science and oceanography. The ocean’s circulation which acts as conveyor belt distributes the increasing salinity and temperature of the sea across the globe. Several companies are researching on solutions to address the above problem and to achieve a Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) concept. Concepts such as FO (forward osmosis), OARO (osmosis assisted RO), NF pre-treatment with EDR, recovery of minerals such as Potassium chloride, Magnesium chloride (a precursor for extraction of Magnesium metal), Lithium chloride, Bromine etc. Theoretically all these solutions are encouraging but when to come to practise there are several hurdles to get over. Currently the most popular SWRO process is to recover 40% fresh water from seawater and discharge the balance 60% with twice its salinity and contaminated chemical are discharged in the sea. Such practice is going on since sixties when RO membranes were introduced. SWRO is an energy intensive process along with thermal evaporation they contribute to a great amount of green house gases. Despite several improvements in energy conservation in membrane processes the emissions of GHG was never addressed till date. Meanwhile several large-scale desalination plants are planned and implemented to overcome severe shortage of fresh water especially in African countries and pacific island and many arid regions of the world. We in CEWT are introducing CAPZ (clean water at affordable price with zero discharge) desalination a proprietary technology that not only achieve the highest recovery of fresh water from sea water but also generates simultaneously a highly value added ultrapure saturated Sodium chloride brine that serves as feed stock for chloralkaline industries substituting ‘solar evaporated salt’ as a source of Sodium. The pure saturated Sodium chloride brine is the feedstock to produce Caustic soda using membrane electrolysis as well as to produce Soda ash using Solvay process. Modern chloralkaline plants are very large in scales of operation which requires large quantities of solar salts. Due to climate change and unseasonal monsoon rains that have severely affected the solar salt production world-wide leaving a large gap between demand and supply. It has sharply increased the price of solar salt in the international market. Bulk of the solar salt is also used in ‘de-icing’ road due to severe snow in the industrialised countries. CAPZ desalination can recover up to 72% fresh water as well as 4.70% saturated sodium chloride brine simultaneously. Directly from seawater. Our current proposed plant in India will produce about 10,000 Mt of saturated Sodium chloride brine per day or 3150 Mt/day of high-quality salt along with 80,000 m3/day of fresh water from a seawater intake of 182,000 m3/day achieving zero liquid discharge (ZLD). We can also retrofit OARO system in our process to further increase water and salt production making it the most effective and economical and environmentally desalination technology in the world!